Bacteriological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella Species from Raw and Fermented Milk
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Bacteriological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella Species from Raw and Fermented Milk

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Abstract

Salmonellosis is one of the most important food borne diseases worldwide, transmitted through a wide range of animal products including milk and milk products.

An investigation was conducted to determine the bacteriological quality, prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species from raw and fermented cow milk.

A total of 344 samples were collected from three selected major markets and Fulani herdsmen settlements in Fika local government area, comprising of 167 raw milk and 177 fermented milk samples respectively. The samples were analyzed for total aerobic plate count (TAPC).

Isolation and characterization of Salmonella was done using cultural, conventional biochemical tests and Microbact 24E, after which antibiotic susceptibility of each isolate was determined by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Salmonella isolates were screened for invA virulence gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

The TAPC of both raw and fermented milk ranged between 5.1 log10 CFU/ml to 7.4 log 10 CFU/ml, with mean and standard deviation of 5.82±2.06 log 10 CFU/ml and 6.62±1.10 log 10 CFU/ml respectively.

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Salmonellae are Gram negative, short, plump, rod shaped, non-spore forming, noncapsulated, aerobic and facultative anaerobic organisms that is classified under the family Enterobacteriaceae, (Manyi-Loh et al., 2016). The genus Salmonella consists of two species: Salmonella enterica, and Salmonella bongori.

The Salmonella enterica is subdivided into six subspecies enterica (I), salamae (II), arizonae (IIIa), diarizonae (IIIb), houtenae (IV) and indica (VI).

There are more than 2541 serotypes majority of which belong to the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (Percival et al., 2004; Pui et al., 2011).

Salmonellosis is one of the most common food-borne bacterial diseases worldwide (Forshell and Wierup, 2006). There have been increased outbreaks of human salmonellosis in most parts of the world resulting from animal infections (Forshell and Wierup, 2006).

Foods of animal sources like raw meats, milk and milk products, and eggs have been incriminated as sources of infection to humans (Brodsky et al., 2002). Other sources of infection are water, soil, and vegetables contaminated with animal feces (Ekdahl et al., 2005).

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