– Contribution of Motor Vehicle Emissions to Air Pollution –
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This study was aimed at determine the contribution of motor vehicle emissions along some busy roads in Kaduna metropolis. The Crowcon Tetra III was used to measure the concentrations of air pollutants such as CO, NO2, and SO2.
Also Vehicle count was conducted manually to determine the vehicle volumes at the sampling points. The results indicated that the concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2.measured were ranged 29.1- 37.0ppm, 0.03-0.05 and 0.0037-0.051 respectively.
With few exceptions, at some sampling points were all above the National Environmental Standards and Regulatory Enforcement Agency (NESREA) recommended safe limits especially during the afternoon-evening periods.
Also the level of pollutants across all the sampling points increases with traffic volume. The study therefore established strong statistical evidence that traffic volume affects the pollutants concentrations at all sampling points.
This implies that motor vehicle emissions in Kaduna metropolis is not within the safe limits, and that motor traffic-related pollution in Kaduna metropolis is a potential hazard to the environment and human health.
It was recommended that, for the benefit of public health and sustainability of the natural functioning of ecosystems motorization growth should be largely checked by environmental regulations.
1.1 Background of the Study
The term pollution refers to any change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or soil that can affect the health, survival or activities of humans or other forms of life in an undesirable way (United State Environmental Protection Agency USEPA, 2001).
Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air by discharge of harmful substances, which can cause health problems including burning eyes and nose, itchy irritated throat and breathing problems (USEPA 1994).
Also the World Health Organization (WHO) (2001) defines air pollution as the disequilibrium of air caused due to the introduction of foreign elements to human’s natural and manmade sources to the air so that it becomes injurious to biological communities.
In general air pollution involved an introduction of pollutants into the earth’s atmosphere such as chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause discomfort, diseases,
including burning eyes and nose, itchy irritated throat and breathing problems, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment.
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