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Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil using Cowpea and Indole-3-Acetic Acid as A Growth Hormone
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Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil using Cowpea and Indole-3-Acetic Acid as A Growth Hormone

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– Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil using Cowpea and Indole-3-Acetic Acid as A Growth Hormone –

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Abstract

One of the unintended impacts of crude oil exploration is the pollution of agricultural land and aquatic resources when there is accidental oil spillage. The environmental effect of this has resulted in untold hardship to communities within oil producing regions all over the world and has been the main reason for conflicts in the regions.

Nigerian Niger Delta region has been devastated by oil pollution and gas flaring, and both the government of Nigeria and the multinational oil producing companies have been searching for solutions for the recovery of oil polluted soil.

Among the various possible methods of recovery of crude oil contaminated soil, bioremediation is most environmentally friendly. A promising bioremediation method is the use of crops with phytoremediation capabilities. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) which belongs to the family of legumes is one of such crops.

In addition to their nutritional value, legumes can be used in the cleaning up of crude oil contaminated soils through different mechanisms such as; biodegradation in the rhizosphere, plant uptake, translocation, transformation, and phytovolatilization.

This research was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation capabilities of cowpea towards the recovery of crude oil contaminated soil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Five (5) plastic buckets with 1000g of soils were contaminated with crude oil at different levels; 0 ml, 30 ml and 40 ml.

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Bioremediation refers to the use of biological mechanisms to destroy, transform, or immobilize environmental contaminants so as to protect potential sensitive receptors. (Bioremediation Discussion Group, 2006). Two remediation techniques are; Ex situ and In situ remediation techniques.

Ex situ remediation techniques involve taking out the soil from the subsurface in order to treat it. In situ remediation techniques encompass leaving the soil in its original place and bringing the biological mechanisms to the soil.

Earlier thermal, chemical and physical treatment methods have been unsuccessful in eliminating the pollution problem because those approaches only move the pollution to a new phase such as air pollution.

Bioremediation technology, which leads to degradation of pollutants, may be a worthwhile and environmentally beneficial substitute that could produce an economic profit (Iranzo et al., 2001.).

In Niger Delta, Nigeria, increased petroleum exploration has led to an unprecedented accidental release of crude oil polluting the land and water sources of the area.

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