The Effects of Welding and Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels
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The Effects of Welding and Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels

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Abstract

The effects of welding and heat treatment on mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel were investigated. The duplex stainless-steel rod of 8mm diameter was cut into length of 100.2mm; they were further cut into two equal parts with the two faces beveled to have a 60° grooved angle, leaving a root and face gap of 2mm.

The rods were then joined together using GMAW and SMAW processes using stainless steel coated electrode and bare wire electrode (E308L-16 and Nertalic 50).

After welding, some specimens passed through stress relief and quenching heat treatment (in neem oil and gear oil (85W90)) and some samples served as standards for comparison and analysis. Tensile, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out.

The results of the studies show that welding and heat treatment really affect the mechanical properties of the alloy, the control strength was 811.47MN/m2 while that of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) it ranged from 177.07 to 257.32MN/m2 and for shield metal arc welding (SMAW) from 452.23 to 678.98MN/m2.

Introduction

Duplex stainless steels were first produced by Avesta Jernverk in the year 1929 with an alloy called 453E (25%Cr-5%Ni).

Another record of the earliest production of duplex stainless steel products dates back to 1933 through an alloying error at J. Holtzer Company, France. An 18%Cr-9%Ni-2.5%Mo austenitic stainless steel grade was made to a 20%Cr-8%Ni-2.5%Mo composition containing a high volume of ferrite in an austenitic matrix.

This two-phase material was then studied and it was found that when it was properly solution heat treated, the alloy was not sensitive to intergranular corrosion (IGC) in various corrosive environments; a significant advantage compared to fully austenitic stainless steel [Gunn, 1997].

However, the development of duplex alloys suffered from many problems such as corrosion, ductility and welding. The real rapid development occurred in the 1970s with improved chemistry analysis capability and the introduction of the argon-oxygendecarburization (AOD) refining process.

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