– Bacteriological Quality and Occurrence of Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus in Ice Cream Sold in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria –
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the bacteriological quality and occurrence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in ice cream sold to consumers by supermarkets and street vendors in Zaria metropolis.
240 samples of industrially and locally produced ice creams were examined for the total aerobic and coliform counts as well as contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli species using standard methods.
The isolated S. aureus and E. coli were further subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method. Overall, the mean total counts (TAPC) per ml of industrial and locally produced ice cream were 1.14 x 107
and 2.015 x107 respectively which were statistically significantly different (P<0.05) and the mean counts for coliforms (TCC) per ml for industrial ice cream and local ice cream were 5.69 x 103 and 4.73 x 103 respectively .
Of the total of 240 samples, comprising 111 industrially produced and 129 local ice cream samples, 19 (8.0%) were positive for Staphylococcus aureus and 5 (2.0%) were positive for Escherichia coli; 5(26.3%) of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were from industrially produced ice cream while 14 (73.6%) were from locally made ice cream .
1.1 Background of the Study
Ice cream is a frozen dairy food made by freezing a processed mix. The mix is composed of a combination of milk products (condensed milk, milk powder and cream), sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavouring and colouring agents ( Kocak et al.,1998).
Ice cream is a palatable, nutritive and healthy food. It is undoubtedly one of the most popular and favourite food products in Nigeria among children and adults especially during hot season. Several brands of ice cream with a variety of flavours are being marketed in Nigeria.
Carbohydrate solutions give the sensation of sweetness and control the frozen and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream mix properties depend primarily on lipid and protein quantities. The small quantities of emulsifier and hydrocolloid act as stabilizers of oil-in- water emulsions.
For flavouring, natural flavours may be used such as real fruit, cocoa, coffee, ginger and vanilla. All these allow great variations in ice cream flavour, taste and way of structure formation (Vica et al., 2010).
As food, ice cream is a very nourishing product, with a great energy value due to its rich content in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. It also contains vitamins (especially vitamin A and B) and mineral salts especially calcium and phosphorus salts.
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