Effects of Water-soluble Fractions of Used Crankcase Oil on Some Physiological Parameters of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus)
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Effects of Water-soluble Fractions of Used Crankcase Oil on Some Physiological Parameters of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus)

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– Effects of Water-soluble Fractions of Used Crankcase Oil on Some Physiological Parameters of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) –

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Abstract

Used crankcase oil is disposed off indiscriminately and it eventually finds its way into the aquatic environment resulting in surface and ground water contamination by complex interacting chemicals and substances. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, additives, antioxidants and trace levels of chlorinated solvents have been detected in used engine oil and these pose a great risk to fish populations and the human consumer of fish.

This study (i) investigated the sublethal effects of water soluble fractions of used crankcase oil on feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), length and weight and muscle and liver glycogen of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings,

(ii) investigated the sublethal effects of the water soluble fractions (wsf) of used crankcase oil on the condition factor of O. niloticus fingerlings, (iii) assessed the bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, gill and muscle of O. niloticus fingerlings exposed to wsf of used crankcase oil,

(iv) determined the sublethal effects of used crankcase oil on the haemotological indices of O. niloticus fingerlings, (v) investigated the effects of used crankcase oil on some selected enzymatic activities in O. niloticus fingerlings.

The water-soluble fractions (wsf) of the used crankcase oil was prepared using the method described by Anderson, Neef, Cox & HighTower (1974) whilethe 96hr static renewal bioassay technique was employed to obtain the median lethal concentration (LC50) from which the sublethal concentrations (definitive values) were made. 

Introduction

Industrialization is considered to be vital to a nation´s socioeconomic development, however the unregulated circumstances accompanying such development especially in developing countries have led to events of surface and ground water contamination by complex interacting chemicals and substances

(Coors &Frische, 2011, Ekubo & Abowei 2011, Landrum,Chapman, Neff, & Page,2012; Dahunsi & Oranusi, 2013; Akinsorotan, 2014). Water contamination is generally a very serious problem in the contemporary world.

This necessitates the indispensable assessment of the quality of water as it affects aquatic organisms and man who depends on the water sources for his daily requirements (Nwaniet al.,2015).

Used crankcase oil (engine, or motor oil) is a contaminant of concern, with large volumes entering aquatic ecosystems through water runoffs. The major source of petroleum contamination in urbanized settlements comes from used crankcase oil, (Mahaney, 1994&Bataynehet al., 2012).

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, additives, antioxidants and trace levels of chlorinated solvents have been detected in used engine oil, (Mahaney,1994). He further reported that compounds in runoffs with used crankcase oil may be in water- soluble fractions or may be absorbed to particles in the runoffs.

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