– Modulatory Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Neurobehavioural and Physiological Responses Induced by Propofol Anaesthesia in Goats –
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on neurobehavioural and physiological changes, induced by propofol anaesthesia in goats. Twenty-four Red Sokoto goats divided into four groups were used for the experiment. Goats in group I (VC) received only ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg).
Goats in group II (PFOL) received only propofol (5 mg/kg), while those in group III (VC200 + PFOL) and group IV (VC300 + PFOL) were administered with ascorbic acid at the dose rates of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, respectively prior to propofol (5 mg/kg) induction.
Pain response after the administration of ascorbic acid and propofol was evaluated in each goat by monitoring and scoring its behaviour. Onset and duration of anaesthesia in the goats were also recorded.
Haematological parameters, taken before and after anaesthetic induction, were analyzed for leucocyte count, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility.
The serum obtained from each blood sample was analyzed for electrolytes (Cl–, Mg2+, Na+, K+, and HCO3–), the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
Pain is a complex interaction involving sensory, emotional and behavioural factors (Serpell, 2006). Animal pain is an aversive sensory experience representing awareness by the animal of damage or threat to the integrity of its tissues.
It changes the animal‘s physiology and behaviour to reduce or avoid the damage, to reduce the likelihood of its recurrence and to promote recovery (Molony, 1997).
Pain typically involves a noxious stimulus or event that activates nociceptors in the body‘s tissues and conveys signals to the central nervous system, where they are processed and generate multiple responses (NRC, 2009).
Painful stimuli evoke not only discrete sensory perceptions and somatic motor responses, but also marked changes in emotional and autonomic states (Gauriau and Benard, 2002).
The ability to quantify the degree of pain experienced by animals is an important component in the assessment of animal welfare (Barnett, 1997), and may provide useful information on the outcome of intervention to ameliorate pain.
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