Effect of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic on Serum Electrolyte Levels of Albino Wistarats (PDF)
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This research was designed to investigate the effect of sub-chronic exposure to lead acetate, cadmium dichloride and arsenic trioxide on serum sodium, chloride, potassium and Bicarbonate levels of albino wistar rats.
Twenty five (25) albino rats with body weight ranging between 192.3-200.3g were randomly assigned to 5 groups of (five) animals each.
Group (1) received 1ml of lead acetate at a dose of 60mg/kg weight, group (2) received 1ml of cadmium dichloride at a dose of 22.5mg/kg body weight, group (3) received 1ml of arsenic trioxide at a dose of 18.8mg/kg body weight, group (4) received 1ml of the mixed metals (lead acetate, cadmium dichloride and arsenic trioxide) while group (5) served as the control and received dionized water and the normal rat pellets.
The result of the electrolyte assay revealed that Na (sodium) and k(potassium) levels of all the test groups were non-significantly increased (P<0.05) when compared to the control while group (4) showed a non-significant increase (P<0.05) when compared with the control.
The Arsenic (As) treated group (3) showed a significant decrease (P>0.05) in chloride levels compared to other test groups. Bicarbonate levels of all the metal exposed groups were non-significantly decreased (P>0.05) when compared to the control.
1.1 Background of the Study
Heavy metal pollution is a global agenda since it has become the major threat to mankind on the planet. Genotoxic effects of environmental agents have high priority in research related to public health.
Alterations in genetic materials are significant in the production of cancer and congenital abnormalities.
In nature, there are more chances of exposure by a mixture of heavy metals rather by single heavy metal. Heavy metals are toxic at relatively low concentrations and persist in the environment long after the soured of emission has be removed.
Thus could be classified as important sources of pollution (Arise et al., 2012). Heavy metals also bio accumulate in one or several compartments across food webs as shown by several scientific observations (Chukwo, 2005; Otitoloju and Donpedro, 2002).
Heavy metals are grouped into essential and non-essential, the essential elements plays important roles as prosthetic groups in enzymes and key metabolic activities in living organisms for example Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), Manganese (Mm) and Zinc (Zn).
The non-essential metals such as arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (cd) and lead (pb) are not needed in the physiological activities of living organism hence they are usually toxic at relatively low concentrations (Falusi et al., 2011).
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